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Toxicology and Pharmacology

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals, particularly drugs, on living organisms. The understanding of drug-body interactions is crucial to drug development. Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) is critical in all phases of drug development programs by providing key insights in how a drug will ultimately be treated or accepted by the body. In the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, 40% of all drug failures in clinical trials were due to unfavorable toxicology and ADME profiles. With the improvement of ADME and toxicology testing, the failure rate has now been reduced to 14%. Regarding how QIAGEN's Toxicology and Drug ADME related PCR arrays can help analyze the toxicology and ADME profiles of drug candidates, see details here.

Recommended Pathways For Toxicology and Pharmacology
Amino Acid Metabolism I
Androgen Receptor Signaling Targets
Apoptosis
Autophagy
Cancer Drug Targets
Cardiotoxicity
Cell Death PathwayFinder
DNA Damage Signaling Pathway
DNA Repair
Dopamine & Serotonin Pathway
Fatty Acid Metabolism
GABA & Glutamate
Glucocorticoid Signaling
Hepatotoxicity
Huntington's Disease
Immunotoxicity
Liver miFinder
Lung Cancer
MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway
Mitochondria
Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism
Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder
Necrosis
NFkB Signaling Pathway
NFkB Signaling Targets
Osmotic Stress
Oxidative Stress
Parkinson's Disease
PPAR Targets
Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder
Unfolded Protein Response