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DNA Damage Signaling Pathway ChIP PCR Array

Human Mouse
 
DNA Damage Signaling Pathway ChIP PCR Array
The Human DNA Damage Signaling Pathway EpiTect ChIP qPCR Array profiles the histone modification status or “histone code” of 84 genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. Histone modifications regulate chromatin structure and correlate with the transcriptional activity of associated genes. Daily exposure to environmental agents (such as reactive oxygen species, methylating agents, UV light, and other ionizing radiation) and even normal physiological processes (such as replication and recombination) all damage DNA. DNA damage is recognized at cell cycle checkpoints so that the cell can either arrest cell cycle progression and repair the damage before undergoing mitosis, or proceed to apoptosis if the damage is irreparable. Cells must repair DNA damage to prevent mutations from accumulating and to maintain genome integrity and stability. Dysregulation of this signaling pathway via mutation or potentially via histone modifications may occur during cancer progression. Understanding changes in the histone code of DNA damage signaling genes may therefore help define the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms behind oncogenesis. This array includes genes important for cell cycle arrest, genes important for apoptosis, and genes involved in DNA repair. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and this real-time PCR array, research studies can easily and reliably analyze the histone modification patterns associated with a focused gene panel involved in DNA damage signaling.
 

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Apoptosis: ABL1, AIFM1 (PDCD8), BRCA1, BRCA2, CIDEA, GADD45A, GADD45G, GML, PPP1R15A, RAD21, TP53, TP73.

Cell Cycle:
Cell Cycle Arrest: CHEK1, CHEK2, DDIT3 (CHOP), GADD45A, GML, GTSE1, HUS1, MAP2K6, MAPK12, PPP1R15A, RAD9A, SESN1, ZAK.
Cell Cycle Checkpoint: ATR, BRCA1, FANCG, NBN (NBS1), RAD1, RBBP8, SMC1A (SMC1L1), TP53.
Other Genes Related to the Cell Cycle: ATM, CHAF1A.

DNA Repair:
Damaged DNA Binding: ANKRD17, BRCA1, BRCA2, DDB1, DMC1, ERCC1, FANCG, FEN1, MPG, MSH2, MSH3, N4BP2, NBN (NBS1), OGG1, PNKP, RAD1, RAD18, RAD51, RAD51L1, REV1 (REV1L), SEMA4A, XPA, XPC, XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3.
Base-excision Repair: APEX1, DCLRE1A, MBD4, MPG, MUTYH, NTHL1, OGG1, UNG.
Double-strand Break Repair: CIB1, FEN1, MRE11A, NBN (NBS1), PRKDC, RAD21, RAD50, XRCC6 (G22P1), XRCC6BP1 (KUB3).
Mismatch Repair: ABL1, ANKRD17, EXO1, MLH1, MLH3, MSH2, MSH3, MUTYH, N4BP2, PMS1, PMS2, TP73, TREX1.
Other Genes Related to DNA Repair: ATM, ATRX, BTG2, CCNH, CDK7, CHAF1A, CRY1, ERCC2 (XPD), GTF2H1, IGHMBP2, IP6K3, LIG1, MGMT, MNAT1, PCNA, RPA1, SUMO1.

Gene Table
 

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EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays provide a reliable tool for the analysis of a panel of ChIP-enriched genomic sequences associated with transcription factors and co-regulators, modified and unmodified histones, and other DNA-binding proteins. The ChIP PCR Arrays can be used for research on stem cells, cancer, immunology, stem cells, toxicology, biomarker discovery and validation.

How it Works Performance Data Application Examples

How it Works

The ChIP PCR array is a set of optimized real-time PCR primer assays on 96-well or 384-well plates for pathway or disease focused analysis of in vivo protein-DNA interactions. The ChIP PCR array performs ChIP DNA analysis with real-time PCR sensitivity and the multi-genomic loci profiling capability of a ChIP-on-chip. Simply mix your ChIP DNA samples with the appropriate ready-to-use PCR master mix, aliquot equal volumes to each well of the same plate, and then run the real-time PCR cycling program. (Download user manual)

What ChIP PCR Array Offers?

  • Function or Disease Focused: Arrays represent a panel of genomic regions relevant to a biological function or disease state.
  • Reliable & Sensitive: Arrays can analyze multiple genomic regions simultaneously with Real-Time PCR precision and sensitivity.
  • Easy to Use Data Analysis: Download an easy-to-use Excel-based data analysis template [here]. Data analysis is based on the ΔΔCt method with normalization of the specific antibody and control IgG raw data to input raw data.

Layout and Controls: The PCR Arrays are available in both 96- and 384-well plates and are used to monitor the expression of 84 genes related to a disease state or pathway plus five housekeeping genes. Controls are also included on each array for ChIP DNA quality controls and general PCR performance.
You can easily perform a ChIP PCR Array experiment in your own laboratory, or send your samples to us and take advantage of our PCR Array Services.

Performance
EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays provide the high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility using SYBR-based real-time PCR technology.

Sensitivity
Together with our easy and fast One-Day ChIP kit, ChIP-Grade Antibody Kits, one million cells per assay as starting material provides 100% effective call rates.

Ct Range

 

Percent Distribution of Ct Values
Input H3K4me3 Control IgG
<24 0% 27% 0%
25-30 100% 60% 0%
30-35 0% 13% 96%
Absent Calls 0% 0% 4%

Table 1. ChIP PCR Arrays Analyze the Enrichment of 84 Genomic Sites with as Little as One Million Cells. P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells were prepared for ChIP Assay using the EpiTect Chip One-Day Kit and anti-H3K4me3 Antibody Kit. One million cells were used as starting material for each ChIP Assay. The purified ChIP DNA samples were characterized using Mouse Stem Cell Transcription Factor ChIP PCR Array with 1/100th of the ChIP DNA as template in each well. The Real-Time PCR results demonstrate 100 % effective call rates for the Input Fraction (Ct < 30). The difference of Ct value between the anti-H3K4me3 antibody and the control IgG fractions indicates the specific enrichment of the antibody, whereas the high Ct value of the control IgG fraction indicates the low background of the assay.

Reproducibility
The complete ChIP PCR Array System demonstrates a high degree of reproducibility across technical replicates, lots, instruments, and different handling, insuring reliable detection of differences in genomic DNA enrichment among biological samples.

Figure 5. Consistent Performance within the Same Plate or across Different Plates. Sonicated chromatin from HeLa cells (20 µg) was immunoprecipitated with 2 µg of anti-H3ac antibody or control IgG for 2 hours using the EpiTect Chip One-Day Kit. The obtained ChIP DNA samples were characterized in triplicates with EpiTect Chip qPCR primers specific for the active genes (GAPDH, RPL30, ALDOA), inactive genes (MYOD1, SERPINA), repetitive sequence (SAT2, SATa), and an ORF-free region (IGX1A) either within the same array plate or among different array plates in order to evaluate the intra- and inter-plate consistency. The anti-H3ac antibody enriched genomic DNA at active gene promoter regions with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a low co-efficiency of variation (less than 2.02%), irrespective of the type of assay (intra or inter-plate)

Figure 6. Consistent Performance with Various Amount of DNA Samples, Instruments or Handling Conditions. All experiments were performed in triplicates. Cells from MCF-7 (1 million per sample) were subjected to ChIP assay with anti-RNA Polymerase II (Pol 2) antibody followed by qPCR analysis of the proximal promoter of GAPDH, and an ORF-free region (IGX1A). Researcher A & B performed the PCR assays either in 96-well plate or 384-well plate format, on a Stratagene MX 3005 or an ABI 7900 Real-Time PCR instrument respectively. The same ChIP DNA samples were used which were stored for extended periods of time as indicated. The results demonstrate high reproducibility of PCR performance across technical replicates, lots, instruments, and differential handling.

Specific and Accurate ChIP-qPCR Detection
One prerequisite for ChIP PCR Array technology is the uniform and high
PCR amplification efficiency allowing a reciprocal comparison of ChIP enrichment among all genomic loci analyzed. The unique combination of SABiosciences' proprietary ChIP-qPCR primer design algorithm, rigorous validation of every ChIP-qPCR primer assay, and high performance SYBR Green master mix guarantees superior performance of EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays.

A:

B:

Figure 7. Uniform Amplification Efficiency and Specific PCR Detection. 96 ChIP-qPCR primers were randomly picked from our genome-wide primer pool and analyzed for their performance. (A) All assays exhibit an average amplification efficiency of 99% with a 104.5% confidence interval between 102.5-105.2%, the uniform high amplification efficiency ensures accurate analysis of multiple genomic loci simultaneously using ΔΔCt method. (B) Each ChIP-qPCR primer assay is experimentally validated using dissociation (melt) curve analysis and agarose gel verification. Each pair of primers on PCR Array produces a single specific product as indicated by a single Dissociation Curve peak at a melting temperature (Tm) greater than 75 ºC, and PCR product was further validated on agarose gel for a single product of the predicted size without secondary products such as primer dimers

Application Examples

EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays provide streamlined approaches to 1) Study biology or disease-focused gene regulation through histone modification and transcriptional regulatory network; 2) Monitor the dynamics of chromatin structure in the screening of function-specific epigenetic patterns; 3) Validate ChIP-on-chip or ChIP-seq results. The EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays are also powerful tools for studying the mechanism contributing to gene expression changes observed by RT² Profiler PCR Arrays.

Below are listed a few examples of application data generated by our R&D group. To see the research using ChIP PCR Arrays published by the scientific community, please see our Publication List: http://www.sabiosciences.com/support_publication.php

Stem Cell Research

Stem cell differentiation into specific tissues involves the complex yet coordinated action of many transcription factors regulating not only tissue-specific genes, but also genes essential for differentiation itself. Histone modifications at the promoters of transcription factors are key mechanism regulating their expression. We used EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays and RT² PCR Arrays to monitor the dynamic coordination of epigenetic modification and gene expression during retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation of P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells (Figure 1). This RA treatment differentiates pluripotent P19 cells into somatic cells (Figure 2). The EpiTect Chip qPCR Array data showed that both gene expression and histone modifications on key transcription factors were changed in a dynamic manner through the course of P19 cell differentiation (Figure 3).

Figure 1. Schematic Representation of Pluripotency-Associated Gene Dynamics throughout Stem Cell Differentiation

Figure 2. Retinoic Acid (RA) Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Carcinoma P19 Cells.

Figure 3. Dynamic Epigenetic Alternations and Gene Expression Changes during RA-Induced P19 Differentiation. ChIP PCR Arrays and RT² PCR Arrays were used to monitor the changes in gene expression levels and histone modification marks (H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3). The promoter region and expression levels of 84 key stem cell transcription factors were simultaneously analyzed during RA-induced neurogenesis of P19 cells at various time points (day 0, 4, and 8). Primer sets for the +1kb region downstream of the transcription start sites of the 84 genes and 12 control regions were preloaded on the ChIP PCR Array. Cluster analysis (http://www.sabiosciences.com/chippcrarray_data_analysis.php) of histone marks and mRNA level changes for the 84 genes were visualized as a heat map to represent the fold-differences during the RA-induced differentiation at the specified time points.

Characterize the Pattern of Histone Modifications

EpiTect Chip qPCR Arrays can be used to monitoring differential histone modifications across a gene.

Figure 4. The Custom EpiTect Chip 30Kb Tiling Array Quickly Maps Histone Modifications Surrounding the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of CDKN1A Gene. EpiTect Chip Antibodies against modified histones (H3Ac, H3K4me2, H3K27me3), or NIS were used to precipitate chromatin from one million HeLa cells. Each ChIP DNA fraction was analyzed with Custom EpiTect Chip 30Kb Tiling Array representing 30 one-kb tile intervals across the promoter region of the CDKN1A gene. The results indicate the enrichment of histone markers for actively transcribed genes (H3Ac and H3K4me2) but not marks for transcriptional inactive genes (H3K27me3) in the genomic region surrounding the TSS of CDNK1A.

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Functional Gene Grouping How It Works Manual & Resources Reagents & Software
 
User Manual EpiTect Chip PCR Array User Manual (PDF)
Data Analysis Free ChIP PCR Array Data Analysis Software (Excel based)
Other Needed Materials Accessories, Equipment & Reagents Required for ChIP PCR Array
Web Seminars Attend a live on-line seminar on EpiTect Chip qPCR System
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Functional Gene Grouping How It Works Manual & Resources Reagents & Software
 

The complete EpiTect Chip qPCR Array System insures that you will get high-quality results from your ChIP analysis the first time, and every time guaranteed.

The Complete EpiTect Chip qPCR Array System Includes:

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