Schizophrenia Copy Number PCR Array
|Human Schizophrenia Copy Number PCR Array
The Human Schizophrenia qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array profiles the copy number of 23 genes reported to undergo frequent genomic alterations in schizophrenia. In this mental disorder that typically presents in young adulthood, thought processes break down, emotional responsiveness becomes poor, and significant social or occupational dysfunction often occurs. Mental health professionals diagnose schizophrenia based on observed behavior and reported experiences and treat it mainly with antipsychotic medications, which can have complications, and psychological and social support, which may or may not be wholly effective. Several de novo genomic rearrangements, including copy number variations (CNV), have been identified at specific gene loci in patients with schizophrenia. The genes on the array encode anchoring/scaffolding proteins, cell adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal components, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes, neurotransmitter receptors, and transcription factors. These proteins regulate processes such as axon guidance, signaling (via hormones, nerve growth factors, and neurotransmitters), nervous system development, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission. Genes were chosen from the most frequently amplified or deleted genes relevant to schizophrenia based on a critical review of the primary literature and public databases. This array may serve as a useful tool to help classify samples by genotype and help verify phenotypic biomarkers. The array facilitates the analysis of each gene in each sample in quadruplicate and includes a stable multi-copy reference assay for accurate copy number determination via appropriate DNA input normalization. The simplicity of the product format and operating procedure allows routine and reliable copy number profiling in any research laboratory with access to a real-time PCR instrument.
The qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Arrays are intended for molecular biology applications. This product is not intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a disease.
96-well Plate, 384-well (4 × 96) Plate, and 100-well Disc formats are available.
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Deletions: ASTN2, CACNG2, CHRNA7, CNTNAP2, EFNA5, ERBB4, GSTM1, MAGI1, NAT1, NAT2, NDE1, NRXN1, PCM1, SELENBP1, SLC1A3.
Duplications: AKAP5, APBA2, CTNND2, GRM7, MYT1L, NDE1, PLA2G4A, SPRY2, VIPR2.
Central Nervous System Development: APBA2, CNTNAP2, EFNA5, ERBB4, MYT1L, NDE1, SLC1A3.
Behavior, Cognition, Learning & Memory: APBA2, CHRNA7, CNTNAP2, CTNND2, GRM7, NRXN1, SLC1A3.
Synaptic Plasticity & Transmission: AKAP5, CACNG2, CHRNA7, CNTNAP2, CTNND2, ERBB4, GRM7, NRXN1, SLC1A3.
Neurotransmitter, Nerve Growth Factor, Neuroendocrine Hormone Receptors & Signaling: CHRNA7, GRM7, SPRY2, VIPR2.
Axon Guidance: CNTNAP2, EFNA5.
Ion Channels: CACNG2, CHRNA7, SLC1A3.
Cell Adhesion: ASTN2, CNTNAP2, CTNND2, MAGI1, NRXN1
Cytoskeleton, Anchoring & Scaffolding: AKAP5, EFNA5, MAGI1, NDE1, PCM1.
Intracellular Transport: APBA2.
Transcription Factors: ERBB4, MYT1L.
Oxidative Stress Response: GSTM1.
Xenobiotic Metabolism: NAT1, NAT2.
Selenium-Binding Protein: SELENBP1.
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"If you have access to a real-time PCR instrument, you can use
qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Arrays are the most reliable
and sensitive copy number profiling technology for analyzing a panel of loci in
signal transduction pathways or disease related gene networks. The Copy Number
PCR Arrays can be used for research on cancer, neurobiology, immunology,
biomarker discovery and validation. See the complete list of Copy Number PCR Arrays.
You can use any 96-well, 384-well plate or 100-well disc real-time PCR instrument. See
instrument-specific setup instructions.
How it Works
The Copy Number PCR array is a set of optimized real-time PCR primer assays on
96-well, 100-tube or 384-well plates for measuring changes in copy number. The
PCR array performs copy number analysis with real-time PCR sensitivity and the
multi-loci profiling capability of a microarray. Simply mix the genomic DNA
sample with the appropriate ready-to-use PCR master mix, aliquot equal volumes
to each well of the same plate, and then run the real-time PCR cycling program. (Download user manual)
||How Copy Number PCR Arrays Work - Protocol Chart
The procedure involves isolating genomic DNA (QIAGEN QIAamp DNA Mini Kit
or FFPE Tissue Kit is recommended), qPCR detection on qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Arrays or
Assays, and data analysis (using the qBiomarker Copy Number Data Analysis).
An optional DNA sample quality control step immediately before the
detection array or assay setup allows the user to qualify the DNA samples.
To complete the Copy Number PCR Array procedure, start with 400 to1000
nanograms of genomic DNA isolated from fresh tissues, or as low as 800
nanograms of DNA from FFPE sections. Then, mix your DNA
with the ready-to-use qBiomarker SYBR Green Mastermixes and aliquot the
mixture into each well of the same plate containing pre-dispensed
locus-specific primer assays. By performing real-time PCR, the copy number
status of a particular sample is determined by comparing the CT values
between your test sample and a wild-type control sample (see qBiomarker
Copy Number Data Analysis section for detailed principles).
Why qBiomarker Copy Number Arrays?
Performance* - ready-to-use for copy number analysis
Time and cost saving - less than 30 minutes
hands-on time for analyzing 23 loci
data analysis using our easy-to-use Excel-based data analysis template
or web-based analysis tool
Layout and Controls: The PCR Arrays are available in both 96-,
384-well plates and 100-well discs and are used to measure the copy number of 23
or 95 genes related to a disease state or pathway. Each gene/locus-specific
assay is repeated in technical quadruplicate as indicated in the figure above.
As an example, the first gene in the array is measured in wells A1, C1, E1 and
G1. The qBiomarker Multicopy Reference Assay (MRef) is used to normalize the
data for differences in the amounts of genomic DNA. The Multicopy Reference
Assay is shown in purple in the above figure in wells B12, D12, F12, and H12.
You can easily perform a Copy Number PCR Array experiment in your own laboratory, or send
your samples to us and take advantage of our PCR
*: when using qBiomarker SYBRŪ Green Mastermix.
The qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array System yields a more accurate
representation of changes in copy number by using a multi-copy reference
assay to normalize the raw target specific data.
Multicopy Reference Assay
The qBiomarker Copy Number Arrays have an integrated multi-copy reference
assay for data normalization. The multi-copy reference assay recognizes a stable sequence that appears in the human genome over 60
times, and whose copy number is not affected or minimally affected by local
genomic changes. Inclusion of this reference assay during testing allows
use of the ΔΔCT method to accurately make copy number calls or relative
copy number change calls for specific targets.
|qBiomarker Multicopy Reference Assay is
superior to RNase P as a reference assay for copy number determination.
Tumor cell line DNA (SKBR3) and reference genomic DNA were mixed
in different ratios (100%, 87.5%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 0% SKBR3
cells respectively), and the DNA mixes were tested for GRB7 gene copy
number, using either MRef assay or RNaseP assay as the reference. The
GRB7 copy number in the reference genomic DNA is assumed to be 2. The
"Expected" GRB7 gene copy numbers in 87.5%, 75%, 50%, 25%,
12.5% mixing ratio samples are calculated based on the GRB7 gene copy
number in 100% SKBR3 genomic DNA sample, and the mixing ratio between
the SKBR3 genomic DNA and Promega genomic DNA. The observed GRB7 gene
copy numbers in general agree well with the expected values when using
QIAGEN Multi-copy Reference Assay as the reference, while significant
differences exist between the observed GRB7 gene copy numbers and the
expected values when RNaseP is used as the reference assay.
RNaseP gene is not suitable as a normalizer of sample input
in cancer cell line DNA samples. The absolute average copy numbers of RNaseP
per normal genome copy amount of DNA were determined in two breast cancer cell
line (SKBR3 and MCF7) genomic DNAs with the delta delta Ct method, using QIAGEN
multi-copy reference assay as the normalization control of DNA input. The
absolute copy number of RNaseP per normal genome in the genomic DNA is assumed to be 2.
Universal Nature of Multicopy Reference Assay
The complete PCR Array System, with high quality input RNA, is guaranteed to
yield single amplicons of the predicted size without primer dimers or other
secondary products to ensure the most accurate real-time PCR results
Stable Performance of the Multicopy Reference (MRef) Assay
in 129 DNAs from 9 Major Human Populations. The qBiomarker multi-copy
reference assay (MRef) and a qBiomarker copy number assay for RB1 were tested
against DNAs from 129 healthy individuals from 9 major ethnic populations. Each
assay and DNA sample combination was run in quadruple reactions. Delta CT
between the average CT of the MRef assay and the RB1 assay was calculated for
each individual DNA. The average delta Ct for samples within each ethnic
population is plotted. Error bars show the standard deviation of the delta CT
within each ethnic population. The RB1 gene is assumed to be present at 2 copies
in all healthy individual DNAs.
qBiomarker Copy Number Assays accurately identify aneuploidy.
qBiomarker Copy Number Assays designed to target AR and MECP2 were tested
against 4 cell line DNAs containing 1 copy (XY, Coriell NA13619), 2 copies (XX,
Coriell NA01921), 3 copies (XXX, Coriell NA03623) and 4 copies (XXXX, Coriell
NA11226) of X-chromosome. Chromosomal aberrations had been previously identified
by cytogenetic methods. A control assay, targeting a stable, multi-copy region
in the human genome, was used to normalize the amount of DNA input. ΔΔCT method
was used to calculate the gene copy number, using XX (Coriell NA01921) as a
2-copy reference. Each assay was tested against each sample in quadruple
replicate reactions, and a t-test was performed.
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The complete qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array System insures that you will
have superior results from your pathway-focused copy number analysis
experiment the first time, and every time guaranteed.
The Complete qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array System Includes:
- qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Arrays
- qBiomarker SYBRŪ Green Mastermix
Instrument-specific PCR master mixes insure
high-efficiency, locus-specific amplification for the most
accurate real-time PCR results.
- qBiomarker Data Analysis Software (Excel & Web
Our convenient and high-quality PCR accessory products complete the
qBiomarker PCR Array System and the qBiomarker Copy Number Assays
Other recommended accessory products:
QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (50)
Isolate genomic DNA from fresh or frozen samples for downstream
real-time PCR array or assay analysis.
QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit
Isolate genomic DNA from fixed samples,
including formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, paraffin
blocks, sections, or slides, for downstream real-time PCR array or
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