microRNA Biogenesis and profiling by pathway and diseases
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an intricate role in gene regulation and understanding their biogenesis and expression patterns is important in defining their biological functions.
The biogenesis of microRNA begins in the nucleus. Here microRNA may be expressed in a similar fashion as any other gene and is often 100s of bases in length. Before the primary microRNA transcript leaves the nucleus it must undergo processing.
First Drosha will remove the tails of the primary-microRNA leaving a shorter stem loop structure which is referred to as the pre-microRNA. Pre-microRNA will associate with the Expotin 5 complex and be escorted from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Once in the cytoplasm the pre-microRNA will be released from Export 5 and face further processing in the Dicer complex. Dicer will remove the stem-loop from the pre-microRNA leaving an asymmetric double-stranded RNA of 20 to 25 nucleotides.
This double-stranded microRNA will then associate with the RISC complex. Here the microRNA will be unwound and exert its effect by guiding the RISC complex to conserved recognition sites in the target mRNAs causing translational inhibition or altered mRNA stability
Profiling microRNA is important in understanding how microRNA regulates different biological pathways and contributes to diseases.
Reliable and reproducible microRNA research depends on sample isolation tools and technologies tailored specifically for microRNAs research. QIAGEN has developed a seamless 4 step solution from sample isolation to data analysis with the miRNeasy family of isolation kits and the miScript PCR System. Watch and learn how microRNA profiling by qPCR by gene, pathway, disease and miRNome can be easily accomplished by any scientist with access to a qPCR instrument.
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