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Pathway Central

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Neuroscience related Pathways

AHR Pathway - New [ Details | Top ]
AHR (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor) is a member of the bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix)- PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) family of transcriptional regulators that control a variety of developmental and physiological events, including Neurogenesis, Tracheal and Salivary duct formation, Toxin metabolism, Circadian rhythms, response to Hypoxia and Hormone Receptor function. The unique feature of all bHLH-PAS proteins is the PAS domain, named after the first three proteins identified with this motif, the Drosophila Per, Human ARNT and Drosophila Sim. The PAS domain consists of 260310 amino acids and incorporates two well-conserved hydrophobic re...

Akt Signaling [ Details | Top ]
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. The N-terminus of the protein is a PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domain, which interacts with membrane lipid products such as PIP2 (Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-Bisphosphate) and PIP3 (Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Triphosphate)....

cAMP Pathway [ Details | Top ]
cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) is the first identified second messenger, which has a fundamental role in the cellular response to many extracellular stimuli. The cAMP signaling pathway controls a diverse range of cellular processes. Indeed, not only did cAMP provide the paradigm for the second messenger concept, but also provided the paradigm for signaling compartmentalization. The different receptors, chiefly the GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Alpha and Beta-ADRs (Adrenergic Receptors), Growth Factor receptors, CRHR (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor), GcgR (Glucagon Receptor), DCC...

CDK5 Pathway - New [ Details | Top ]
CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinases) are a group of serine/threonine protein kinases activated by binding to a regulatory subunit cyclin. These kinases are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle progression. CDK5 (also known as Neuronal CDC2-Like Kinase, NCLK) is a unique member of the CDK family, that does not act as a checkpoint kinase to regulate cell cycle progression, but acts as a regulatory kinase involved in other post-mitotic processes such as neuronal activity, neuronal migration during development and neurite outgrowth. Although the CDK5 protein is expressed at basal levels in most mammalian tissues, CDK5 activi...

Chemokine Signaling [ Details | Top ]
Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6-14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system functions, chemokines are a critical component of basal leukocyte trafficking essential for immune system architecture and development, and immune surveillance. Chemokines also participate in the growth, differentiation, and activation of leukocytes as well as stimulate various effector functions of these cells, such as integrin activation, chemotaxis, superoxide radical production and granule enzyme release. Four classes of chemokines...

Circadian Clock in Mammals - New [ Details | Top ]
Circadian clocks are molecular time-keeping mechanisms that reside in a diverse range of cell types in a variety of organisms. The primary role of these cell-autonomous clocks is to maintain their own 24-hour molecular rhythm and to drive the rhythmic expression of genes involved in physiology, metabolism and behavior. The ability of the clock to persist in the absence of environmental cues provides internal temporal organization so that rhythmic activities can occur at characteristic times during the circadian cycle. In addition, two other clock properties, entrainment (that is, setting the clock to local time with respec...

CREB Pathway [ Details | Top ]
The process of consolidating a new memory and the dynamic complexity of information processing within neuronal networks is greatly increased by activity-dependent changes in gene expression within individual neurons. A leading paradigm of such regulation is the activation of the nuclear transcription factor CREB (cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein), and its family members the ATF (Activating Transcription Factor) and CREM (cAMP Response Element Modulator), which belong to bZIP (basic/leucine zipper) class of transcription factors that functions in vivo to regulate the proliferation of pituitary cells and thymocytes...

EGF Pathway [ Details | Top ]
EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) is a small 53 amino acid residue protein that is involved in normal cell growth, oncogenesis, and wound healing. This protein shows both strong sequential and functional homology with hTGF-Alpha (human type-Alpha Transforming Growth Factor), which is a competitor for EGF receptor sites. EGF binds to a specific high-affinity, low-capacity receptor on the surface of responsive cells known as EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor). EGFR is a member of the ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog) family receptors, a subfamily of four closely related receptor tyrosine kinases...

eNOS Signaling - New [ Details | Top ]
NO (Nitric Oxide) is a short-lived free radical gas involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. It is produced along with L-Citrulline by the oxidation of L-Arginine and catalyzed by three different isoforms of NOS (NO Synthase). Type-I nNOS (neuronal NOS) and Type-III eNOS (endothelial NOS) are constitutively expressed as latent enzymes and require a higher concentration of Ca2+ for the enzyme activity. In contrast, Type-II iNOS (inducible NOS) is Ca2+ independent because its high affinity for Ca2+/Calm (Calmodulin) renders the enzyme active even at basal levels of intracellular Ca2+ (Ref.1 & 2). The ca...

Ephrin-EphR Signaling - New [ Details | Top ]
In numerous processes that are vital for the development and maintenance of organism function, cells must communicate crucial information to respond appropriately to the changing environment. As such, RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) are transmembrane proteins, which, on receiving an external stimulus, respond by transmitting a signal to the inside of the cell. Of all the RTKs that are found in the human genome, the Eph Receptor family and their ligands the Ephrins, constitutes the largest family....

FGF Pathway [ Details | Top ]
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes, such as ovulation, embryogenesis, wound repair, inflammation, malignant tumor growth, retinopathies, rheumatoid arthritis, and angiogenesis-dependent diseases. One of the best-characterized modulators of angiogenesis is the heparin-binding FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor). FGF induces neovascularization in vivo and is implicated in the growth of new blood vessels during wound healing and embryogenesis. In vitro, FGF induces cell proliferation, migration, and production of proteases in endothelial cells by interacting...

GPCR Pathway [ Details | Top ]
GPCRs (Guanine Nucleotide Binding–Protein Coupled Receptors) comprise large and diverse gene families in fungi, plants, and the animal kingdom. Also termed serpentine receptors, GPCRs are polytopic membrane proteins that share a common structure with seven transmembrane segments, but sequence similarity is minimal among the most distant GPCRs. Their principal function is to transmit information about the extracellular environment to the interior of the cell, and they do this by interacting with the G-proteins. GPCRs recognize a variety of ligands and stimuli including peptide and non-peptide hormones and neurotransmitters...

Intracellular Calcium Signaling - New [ Details | Top ]
Despite tremendous diversities in their expression, cellular activities in virtually all cell types are regulated by common intracellular signaling systems, and calcium is one important ubiquitous intracellular messenger, controlling a diverse range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, muscle contraction and cell proliferation (Ref.1). In response to adequate stimuli, [Ca2+]i (Intracellular Ca2+ concentration) increases, oscillates and decreases, leading to the activation, modulation and termination of cell function. Numerous channels and pumps allow this particular cation to enter and exit cells and move bet...

IP3 Pathway [ Details | Top ]
IP3 (Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), also known as a second messenger, is a molecule that functions to transfer a chemical signal received by the cell, such as from a hormone, neurotransmitters, growth factors and hypertrophic stimuli such as AngII (Angiotensin-II), Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, and ET1 (Endothelin-1) to various signaling networks within the cell. IP3 is known to play a crucial role in initiating and propagating these messages; however, the precise mechanism of how IP3 relates to the next element in its signaling pathway, the calcium wave, remains highly controversial. The receptors for IP3, IP3R (IP3 Receptor) constitute a family...

JNK Pathway [ Details | Top ]
MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs include ERKs (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases), JNKs (c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein Kinases), and p38 Kinases. Members of the JNK/SAPK (Stress-Activated Protein Kinase) family of MAPKs are strongly stimulated by numerous Environmental Stresses...

MAPK family pathway [ Details | Top ]
Protein kinases are ubiquitous enzymes that are able to modulate the activities of other proteins by adding phosphate groups to their tyrosine, serine, or threonine amino acids (phosphorylation). MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases), which are activated by many different signals, belong to a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. MAPKs deliver extracellular signals from activated receptors to various cellular compartments, notably the nucleus, where they direct the execution of appropriate genetic programs, including activation of gene transcription...

MAPK Signaling [ Details | Top ]
Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the Plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is a common mechanism of signal transduction in many cellular processes. During the past decade, several related intracellular signaling cascades have been elucidated, which are collectively known as MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling cascades. The MAPKs are a group of protein Serine/threonine Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate ....

NGF Pathway [ Details | Top ]
One of the most fundamental issues in current biology is how to maintain the critical balance between cell survival and death, both during development and in adulthood. Unrestrained cell division and survival leads to various forms of tumor, while excessive or premature cell death may lead to a variety of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Multiple Sclerosis. In the nervous system, a family of Neurotrophins, which includes NGF (Nerve Growth Factor), BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), NT3 (Neurotrophin3) and NT4/5 (Neurotrophin-4/5), maintains this critical balance of cell survival and death. The best characterized of these...

Signaling in Gap Junction - New [ Details | Top ]
Gap Junction (GJ) channels span two plasma membranes and are formed by the alignment of two hemichannels, each consisting of an oligomer of structural subunit proteins, called Cxs (Connexins). These junctional proteins constitute a multigene family whose members are distinguished according to their predicted molecular weight in kilodaltons. A Connexin structure consists of two extracellular loops (EL), four membrane-spanning domains (TM), one cytoplasmic loop (CL), one N-terminal tail (NT), and one C-terminal tail (CT) (Ref.1 & 2). During intercellular channel formation, six Connexins oligomerize into a Connexon or hemicha...