GABA & Glutamate
|Human GABA & Glutamate PCR Array
The Human GABA & Glutamate RTē Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression
of 84 key genes of the GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate neurotransmitter
systems. The brain is a complex organ, capable of exerting essential responses
for a variety of internal and external stimuli. Each stimulus activates
excitatory or inhibitory responses, and the sum of these responses on each
neuron results in propagated or inhibited neuronal transmission. Of the wide
variety of neuronal receptors in the brain, the major excitatory receptors
recognize the ligand glutamate, and the major inhibitory receptors respond to
the ligand GABA. The GABA neurotransmitter system includes the GABAA and GABAC
classes of ligand gated ion channels. The glutamate neurotransmitter system
includes NMDA, AMPA, and kainate ligand-gated ion channels. Key enzymes
synthesize GABA or glutamate as necessary, which are then transported into
synaptic vesicles. Release of GABA or glutamate from vesicles activates
postsynaptic GABA-responsive or glutamate-responsive ion channels, respectively,
initiating downstream G protein signaling to propagate neurotransmission.
Dysregulation of GABAergic or glutamatergic synaptic transmission results in a
wide variety of nervous system disorders, including chronic pain, psychiatric
diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and insomnia. There are many drugs that
are agonists or antagonists of the GABA and glutamate neurotransmitter systems.
Historically, these major excitatory and inhibitory systems were studied
separately. However, recent research suggests that input from both GABA and
glutamate are necessary for normal nervous system growth and function. This
array represents genes essential for the synthesis and transport of GABA and
glutamate, as well as responsive ion channels and downstream signaling. The
results of this array may yield insights into the interaction of these
excitatory and inhibitory neuronal systems during essential cognitive functions.
Using real-time PCR, research studies can easily and reliably analyze the
expression of a focused panel of genes involved in neuronal GABA and glutamate
functions with this array.
The RTē Profiler PCR Arrays are intended for molecular biology applications. This product is not intended for the
diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a disease.
96-well Plate, 384-well (4 × 96) Plate, and 100-well Disc formats are available.
Available for cells, tissues, FFPE samples and small samples
| Pathway Source References Modify this Array
Receptors: GRIA1, GRIA2, GRIA3, GRIA4, GRIK1, GRIK2, GRIK4, GRIK5, GRIN1,
GRIN2A, GRIN2B, GRIN2C, GRM1, GRM2, GRM3, GRM4, GRM5, GRM6, GRM7, GRM8.
Downstream Signaling: ADCY7, APP, CACNA1A, CDK5R1, CLN3, DLG4 (PSD95),
GNAI1, GNAQ, HOMER1, HOMER2, ITPR1, MAPK1 (ERK2), PLA2G6, PLCB1, SHANK2.
Transport & Secretion: ADORA1, ADORA2A, AVP, BDNF, IL1B, P2RX7,
SLC17A6, SLC17A8, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A6, SLC17A6, SLC17A7, SLC17A8,
SLC38A1, SLC7A11, SNCA.
Metabolism: ALDH5A1, GAD1, GLS, GLUL, PRODH, SLC1A3, SRR.
Receptors: GABBR1, GABBR2, GABRA1, GABRA2, GABRA4, GABRA5, GABRA6,
GABRB1, GABRB3, GABRD, GABRE, GABRG1, GABRG2, GABRG3, GABRQ, GABRR1, GABRR2.
Downstream Signaling: ADCY7, ADORA1, ADORA2A, CACNA1A, CACNA1B, GNAI1,
GNAQ, GPHN, SNCA.
Transport & Secretion: CACNA1A, NSF, P2RX7, SLC1A3, SLC32A1, SLC38A1,
SLC6A1, SLC6A11, SLC6A12, SLC6A13.
Metabolism: ABAT, ALDH5A1, GAD1, GLS, GLUL, PHGDH, SLC1A3.
| Pathway Source References Modify this Array
"If you have access to a real-time PCR instrument, you can use PCR Arrays"
RT² Profiler™ PCR Arrays are the most reliable and sensitive gene expression
profiling technology for analyzing a panel of genes in signal
transduction pathways, biological process or disease related gene networks. The PCR Arrays can be
used for research on cancer, immunology, stem cells,
toxicology, biomarker discovery and validation, and phenotypic analysis of
cells and transgenic animals. See the complete list of PCR Arrays.
You can use any 96-well or 384-well real-time PCR instrument. See
instrument-specific setup instructions. Click below for detailed
How it Works
The PCR array is a set of optimized real-time PCR primer assays on 96-well or
384-well plates for pathway or disease focused genes as well as appropriate RNA
quality controls. The PCR array performs gene expression analysis with real-time PCR
sensitivity and the multi-gene profiling capability of a microarray. Simply mix
your cDNA template with the appropriate ready-to-use PCR master mix, aliquot
equal volumes to each well of the same plate, and then run the real-time PCR
cycling program. (Download user manual)
||How PCR Arrays Work - Protocol Chart
What it offers?
Performance* - ready-to-use for gene
Time and cost saving - less than 30 min hands-on
time for analyzing 84 genes
data analysis using our easy-to-use Excel-based data analysis template or web-based analysis tool
Layout and Controls: The PCR Arrays are available in both 96- and
384-well plates and are used to monitor the expression of 84 genes related to a
disease state or pathway plus five housekeeping genes. Controls
are also included on each array for genomic DNA contamination, RNA quality, and
general PCR performance
You can easily perform a PCR Array experiment in your own laboratory, or send
your samples to us and take advantage of our PCR
*: when using complete PCR array system.
The complete PCR Array System yields a greater-than 85 percent present call with
as little as 25 ng as much as 5 µg of total RNA from a pathway representing
genes expressed at a lower level (inflammatory cytokines and receptors).
||PCR Arrays Let You See More Genes
with Less RNA
Different amounts of universal total RNA were characterized using the
Human Inflammatory Cytokines and Receptors PCR Array, and the percentage
of detectable genes was calculated for each RNA amount.
As little as 25 ng total RNA yields greater than an 80% positive call,
even for cytokines expressed at very low levels.
The complete PCR Array System demonstrates strong correlations across technical
replicates, lots, and instruments with average correlation coefficients >
0.99 insuring reliable detection of differences in expression between biological
||PCR Arrays Yield Highly Reproducible Results
Four replicate sets of raw threshold data (1-4) obtained by two different scientists (A & B) at two different times (050825 & 060111) on Human Drug Metabolism RT² Profiler PCR Arrays are directly compared. The results demonstrate a high degree of correlation (R2 > 0.990).
The complete PCR Array System, with high quality input RNA, is guaranteed to
yield single bands of the predicted size without primer dimers or other
secondary products thus providing the most accurate real-time PCR results
||PCR Arrays Amplify A Single Gene-Specific Product in Every Reaction.
Universal total RNA was characterized on the TGFβ / BMP Signaling Pathway PCR Array, followed by dissociation (melt) curve analysis.
PCR Arrays specifically detect individual genes despite the expression of related gene family members in the same RNA sample.
To ascertain the oncogenic route that two different human breast tumors have
taken, the relative expression level of cancer- and adhesion-related genes in
normal and two different cancerous tissues were compared.
Template cDNAs prepared from total RNA of normal human breast and two human
breast tumors (BioChain Institute, Inc., 5.0 µg) were characterized in
technical triplicates using the Human Cancer PathwayFinder™ PCR Array and the Human Extracellular Matrix & Adhesion Molecule PCR Array with the RT² SYBR Green / Fluorescein PCR master mix on the
||ECM & Adhesion PCR Arrays Revealed Up- and Down-Regulated Genes in Breast Cancer
Total RNA from normal human breast and a human breast tumor were characterized in technical triplicates, and the relative expression levels for each gene in the two samples are plotted against each other in the Scatter Plot.
Genes encoding the matrix metallopeptidases (MMP3 & MMP9) and their inhibitors (TIMP3) are up-regulated, while genes encoding integrins (ITGB3 & ITGB4) are down-regulated, by at least three-fold (outside the silver field) in breast tumors relative to normal tissue.
Rezulin (Troglitazone or "Tro" or "T"), a glitazone
PPAR-gamma agonist, was approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but was
withdrawn from the market due to idiosyncratic liver toxicity. Two similar
drugs, Avandia (Rosiglitazone or "Rosi" or "R") and Actos (Pioglitazone
or "Pio" or "P"), are considered to be safe treatments for
the same condition. The expression profile of key drug metabolism genes should
be different in cells treated with Rezulin versus those treated with Avandia and
Hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were treated at 80% cell confluence with
these three drugs (100 µM, Cayman Chemical) or a DMSO vehicle control for 24 h.
RNA isolated using the ArrayGrade™ Total RNA Isolation Kit was used to
characterize gene expression with the Human Drug Metabolism and
Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder™ RT² Profiler™ PCR Arrays and
RT² SYBR Green / Fluorescein PCR master mix on the Bio-Rad iCycler®.
||Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder™ PCR Array Uncovered Idiosyncratic Mechanisms of Action for Liver Toxicity Caused by 3 PPARγ Agonists.
RNA from HepG2 cells treated with three different glitazone PPARγ agonists for type 2 diabetes mellitus was characterized, and the results were compared to that of a vehicle (DMSO) control.
A withdrawn drug with idiosyncratic liver toxicity (Rezulin) induces very different changes in the expression of stress-related genes than two safer drugs still on the market (Avandia and Actos).
Back to Top
The complete RT² Profiler™ PCR Array System insures that you will get good results from your pathway-focused gene expression analysis experiment the first time, and every time guaranteed.
The Complete RT² Profiler™ PCR Array System Includes:
Our convenient and high-quality real-time RT-PCR accessory products complete
the RT² Profiler™ PCR Array System and the RT² PCR Primer
Assays. The other components needed for real-time PCR analysis are SYBR Green
PCR master mix, first strand synthesis kit, and an optional RNA QC array.
Other recommended accessory products
NEW: RT² RNA QC PCR Array
Tests for RNA Quality and Inhibitors of RT-PCR Analyses, optional
|Back to Top